Pronunciation Grammar & Syntax
Questions Prepositions Prefixes
Verbs Conjunctions Suffixes

Earth Minimal
An Ultra-Compact Auxiliary Language
© 1998 Ebtx

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Pronunciation

Vowels are pronounced (ah eye aye ee oh oo = aa, i, a, e, o, u). Verbifiers & suffixes ( em, el, en, ev ) are given a short 'e' as in "pen, sell". The letters 'ch' are pronounced as in "church". Hard 'g' only as in "get". There is no stand-alone 'c' and no 'q' or 'x' (except 'ex'). Some viable 2-consonant combinations are omitted and no 3-consonant combinations are used.
































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Grammar / Syntax

'Words' in the table are considered nouns as the default state. For instance, the word for 'quantity' is ro. By itself ro would mean 1,2,3...etc.

When preceeded or followed by a 'verbifier' (em, en, el) the word is verbified.

Transitive:
Roem = "quantified". Roen ="quantifying" ; Roel ="will quantify".
Intransitive:
Emro "was quantified". Enro ="is quantified" ; Elro ="will be quantified".

Verbifiers change the meaning of all syllables in a 'word' collectively ('all noun+adjective' to 'all verb+adverb').
Em, en, el, may 'stand alone' meaning : was, is, will be.

Multisyllable words generally imply that the first or last syllable is the main thing while the following or preceeding syllables 'modify' the first or last (adjective, adverb or 'narrows down possibilities' as in a game of Twenty Questions) . Exp: animal-he may mean a male animal while he-animal could mean he's animallike depending on context.

e-minimal is an SVO (subject-verb-object) language.
Translate "He was killed by a truck." as "Ti emglopo proku plizaa." Or, "Plizaa glopoem ti." ... but not "Ti glopoem...(He killed...)"

Don't underestimate the abillity of others to "piece together" what you mean. They have an enormous understanding of language in general (same as you do) which no one has even begun to codify.




































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The Verbifiers


EM Was. Past tense. This syllable is a prefix/suffix appended to any word for the purpose of "verbification". em+taa - "Ti emtaa" = "He has gone". Pronounced as in 'them'.

EN Is. Present tense. Verbifier as in en+taa - "Ti entaa" = "He is going". Pronounced as in 'then'.

EL Will be. Future tense. Verbifier as in el+taa - "Ti eltaa" = "He will go". Pronounced as in 'tell'.

Transitive:
Roem = "quantified". Roen ="quantifying" ; Roel ="will quantify".
Intransitive:
Emro "was quantified". Enro ="is quantified" ; Elro ="will be quantified".

Verbifiers change the meaning of all syllables in a 'word' collectively ('all noun+adjective' to 'all verb+adverb').
Em, en, el, may 'stand alone' meaning : was, is, will be.





































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Question & Exit e-min

ER Question indicator. Stand alone as in "Hunh??" or "Er su entaa?" = "Are you going?" or prefix as in "Erkaa su entaa?"="Where (?place) are you going?". Pronounced as "air".

EX Enter/Exit the e-minimal language.
Pronounced as in 'hex'. This 'switch' allows one to give a proper name, place, etc. as in "Here is Aristophanes. He will go with us."= "Dekaa en ex Aristophanes. ex Ti eltaa ko viz." (note: ex-ex is meant for "compusation" (computer conversation). In writing use "Dekaa en [ Aristophanes ] Ti eltaa ko viz." [ ] means : "in the other language")












































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Prefixes

PI - Study Of . . . ; Prefix as in piro=study of number=mathematics ; pirohun (or "piron" if no confusion results)=one who studies mathematics=mathematician;

TE - The 'mated or related principle'. Prefix 'te' to a word and obtain what you may not be able to designate by 'po'.
Such as:
electricity & magnetism (sko & tesko)
father and mother (faa & tefaa)
nut and bolt (stem glun & stem teglun)
circle and square (jo & tejo).

PRO - Preposition prefix
This 'word' is a prefix which designates the following syllable as "prepified", i.e. the next syllable is to be understood as the appropriate preposition.
Examples:
prokaa='at'(place); proko='with'(companion); projo='around' ; provo='in'(inside)

DI - Conjunction prefix
This word is a prefix which designates the following syllable as "conjunctified", i.e. the next syllable is the appropriate conjunction.
Examples:
dier=if (i.e. the 'question' conjunction)
diple=then(result)
dilo=and(plus)
dibra=but (conditional statement)























































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PRO - Preposition prefix
This 'word' is a prefix which designates the following syllable as "prepified", i.e. the next syllable is to be understood as the appropriate preposition.
Examples:
prokaa='at'(place); proko='with'(companion); projo='around' ; provo='in'(inside)
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DI - Conjunction prefix
This word is a prefix which designates the following syllable as "conjunctified", i.e. the next syllable is the appropriate conjunction.
Examples:
dier=if (i.e. the 'question' conjunction)
diple=then(result)
dilo=and(plus)
dibra=but (conditional statement)
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Suffixes

- EV Possessive suffix
Appended to word to indicate possession as in "Viev"=Mine; or, "Ki en viev"="It is mine".

- Z Plural
Indicates plurality. Appended to the end of any noun of one or more syllables. Standard 'z' sound as in "hotels".

- N That which acts...
Suffixed to complete word to indicate an object that performs the function named (understood to be verbified).
Example:
traan=mind= that which reasons
taanz=those which are moving
taahun= person who is moving

- L That which is acted upon...
Suffixed to a word to indicate the object acted upon (understood to be verbified).
Example:
glopohul= the person who was killed= victim
as opposed to: glopohun= person who did the killing= murderer

- J Suffix - Indicates an adverb.
Example: enklaa yij = speaking generally
Alternatively, an adverb can be within the verbified form (enyiklaa) if no confusion results.
Adverb forms can be placed before or after the verb. (yij enklaa)

- M Suffix - Indicates an adjective.
Example: blam shu = broken machine
Alternatively, the adjective can be within the noun form (shubla) if no confusion results.
Adjective forms can be placed before or after the noun. (blashu)

- PO -Opposite; Opposition
Po can be suffixed to a syllable thereby turning it into its opposite. Examples: jepo=left ; raapo=darkness ; bipo=divide ; mopo=less.
When no syllable preceeds, it means 'opposition'. Eg. pomo=greater opposition ; Enpo proku paa ! = Oppose by means of force !
Note: popo = 'support' ; popopo(redundant) = po

-TO An "increment of" ..... Suffixed to a word means 'a unit which makes up the former' ,eg. hoto= room (building incrememt). Also, 'topo' means the next level up in a hierarchy as in hotopo = city (a group made out of buildings [opposite of increment] ).









































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Time

One time-increment = one second = Tato ( MKS default)
Dato = one day increment = 1 hour
Datoto = 1 increment of one hour = 1 minute
Datrano = one month
Staada = 7 days = one week
tavaadu=noon [tavaadunoraa=midnight]
tavaatraduha = 13:28 = 1:28 pm in military time
[na datrano terovaastaa=September 17th]











































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Directions

[Direction=kavaadu=north]
[katra = east ; kana = west ; kasi = south]
             12        North=12
         11  |   1  
      10     |      2  
             | 
     9  CLOCK FACE   3    

      8             4    
         7       5
             6

















































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Angles

[Angles ; skusi=180degrees] [skutri=90] [skuvaadu=360] [or . . . skurofobe=45degrees, etc.] [teskuvaadu=circle]
             12        360deg.=12
         11  |   1  
      10     |      2  
             | 
     9  CLOCK FACE   3    

      8             4    
         7       5
             6










































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Measurement in e-minimal
Some suggested standards . . .

Quantities in Meters-Kilograms-Seconds
(mks standard as default system).
Large number exponential notation :
bevatra = 5^3 = 125 ; duvastaa = 2^7 = 128
hana bi shitra = 89 x E3 = hanashitra = 89E3 = 89,000
teka hanashitra=89 kilometers
(base 10 as default)












































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Linear scaling

100 percent = skevaanono ; 98% = skenaha ; etc.
0 -----------------------------------------------> n
maasmaa __smaa __ sma ___ smo ___ maasmo
least ______small _ medium __ large _ maximum

Qualitive estimate scale

(worst) 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10 (best)
You know the drill here ; )
Feev lihe lo wu en shebaana = ? (define each syllable)










































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Temperature

Default temperature scale is Celsius.
-18---0--12--25--38---50----------100 C
 |    |   |   |   |    | 
 0---32--54--77--100--122---------212 F

krabaadube = 25 degrees celsius ; krabaavaanono = water boiling point











































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Animals

zobaa (animal scale)
+ some defining characteristics
= a specific animal
[e.g. zobaana prozepo maaflo = whale
. . . - to be specific - maybe ...
. . . maaflozo will get the job done]

0) Viruses
1) Bacteria
2) Single celled animals
3) Multicellular but you'd never
. . . know it if you ate just one.
4) Insect size
5) Those that fit in your mouth
. . . but not in your nose
6) Those bigger than 5 but
. . . smaller than a basketball
7) Those bigger than a basketball
. . . but you could still probably kill it
. . . with your bare hands (dogs).
8) Look out for these man size
. . . or somewhat larger beasties.
9) Super huge whale types, dinosaurs, etc.

Gezo = farm animal (covers most of those we eat).







































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Fingers

1-thumb ; 2-index ; 3-middle ; 4-ring ; 5-small
(same as piano notation)
patobe="pinky" ; patotraem="flipped the bird" ; papotoz=toes ; papotovaa~or~papotomaa=big toe











































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Colors

"Paint Mixing" standard . . . 0-5 scale....
This gives 6 colors.

kloNo = Black
kloTra = Red
Duklo = Blue
Vaaklo = White
Foklo = Yellow
Beklo = Green

Then, red is color3 = klotra
naaklo = transparent
travaaklo = pink
color34 or color43 = trafoklo or klofotra = orange
klonotra = dark red
klomaatra = bright red
dudufoklo = bluish green or greenish blue

Mentally mix paint in unit amounts per syllable (vaa=1unit ; vaavaa=2units ; etc.) and imagine the resulting color.












































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Map Coordinates

Wofrobaa vajepo = planet surface scale_upleft = top west planet quarter (Greenwich,Eng.=0 degrees longitude ; equator=0 degrees latitude)
Wofrobaa skutoz jepostaabe vafono = 75 degrees longitude west and 40 degrees latitude north = roughly the New York/Philadelphia area.
datoto = minutes ; tato = seconds






































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Social Graces:

Progo bro,=[prep.] for the purpose of assistance
or, Brograa = Please

Graasu=( I ) thank you ; or, Graaz!= Thanks!
Naagraasu = No Thank you.

Suenchaa=You + are desired(wanted)
[supposed to be two words, but . . .]
~ = You're welcome here!
or, Vievso= My Pleasure . . .
Proko so, = With pleasure,

Hi! = Courtesy = ~ Hello !
Hiklaa! = courtesy word = ~ hello
Or ... Hipo = opposite courtesy = discourteous
Naahi = not courteous

Haazu = good route = good bye ...
Glezu = happy (laugh) route
Zugle = route happy (laugh)

































































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