a Doppler consequence in accelerated expansion
Type 1a SN intrinsic brightness data are based on the duration of Cephied events which are constant with respect to the Cephied's intrinsic luminosity. Thus, the longer the "Cepheid period" lasts, the greater is the luminosity of that star and from this, one may calculate a fairly dependable distance value ... in turn used to calibrate the Type1a distance (which are all "60 watt light bulbs" - Sandage).
The Chipmunk Effect
When my father brought home a tape recorder for the first time, we "played" with it, i.e. made fools of ourselves by ... ugh ... I don't want to remember. One thing we tried was to make ourselves sound like Alvin & the Chipmunks by speeding up the tape. Of course, this doesn't work because when you speed up the tape to get a higher pitched voice, you also speed up the talking so that it is no longer intelligible.
The same is true in the case of Cepheid variables.
If they have motions which are significant with respect to the speed of light, an additional adjustment must be made to the duration of the period.
For instance, if the speed away from us is 1/4 c ... the period will by lengthened by a multiplier of 5/4. If it were travelling at c, its period would need to be adjusted by a factor of 2 ... in addition to ... any other relativistic correction.
I don't have ready access to the thought processes of scientists, so I can't tell how they arrive at their results in detail. We only see those results and trust that they have not made simple errors. Usually this is OK since it is up to "peer review" to sound out any such possibilities. So I mention this in passing with no serious idea that they may have "messed up".
Still, as a group, they are a pretty messed up lot.
What My Model Predicts
The changing value of the fine structure constant
To modern astronomy, no "constants" used in physics change. In my view ... they all do (except whichever one you choose to keep as an arbitrary constant to calibrate the changes in the others).The changing value of the gravitational constant
My view is that it decreases to zero asymptotically from an initial value of "one".The changing value of the velocity of light
Though we hold this one constant (arbitrarily), I think it would be best to consider it as changing as a consequence of the changing F.S.C. because I regard the FSC as the measure of the "elasticity of space", i.e. initially it has a tension of "1" which has now decreased to ~1/136. It is the relaxation of this "tension" which provides the gradient through which galaxies and stars are pushed together into active configurations which do not appear to be gravitationally bound (the dark matter). Sort of my version of quintessence, eh?From my vantage point
The physicists and astronomers of today have no idea at all how difficult it's going to be to iron out all the conceivable possibilities. Generally, they just don't conceive of them and proceed on the assumption that there are not serious troubles over the horizon.
This is probably just as well since they would get too discouraged and quit. Though I cannot myself iron out these difficulties either, I can at least see many of them coming ... after all ... I know where things must end up in the final tally.
Eventually, they must see the absolutely fundamental logic of the universe ... and there's not all that much to look at. I've been there ... and I am there ;o)