Dark Matter
Missing Mass & Flatness Problem

 T
he dark matter, missing mass and flatness problems can be solved by analyzing the expansion of the universe with respect to its functional dependence on gravity.

Clearly, if space is expanding then the space between stars and the space between protons and electrons expands also. But if all these spaces expand no expansion could be observed, vis. if the electron does not fall down an 'expansion gradient' then atoms will expand with space making observation of expansion impossible to 'atomic observers' (man). If electrons do drop through the gradient but stars (within galaxies) do not, the galaxy would appear to expand in proportion with the universe which is not the apparent case. The following reasoning must apply.

Assume a Newtonian, gravitational equilibrium state wherein no expansion of space occurs.
Galaxies then have unaffected stable radii. If space is then expanded, the distance between galaxies expands. However, the space between stars in an individual galaxy must also expand making such expansion an 'unobservable'.

To make the expansion 'observable', stars in galaxies must be held against the expansion while galaxies themselves move apart. It is important to note here that they cannot be held against the expansion by gravity because the total extent of the force of gravity is accounted for in holding the stars in the equilibrium configuration.

This holding is logically equivalent to the compression of a galaxy by an excess, non-gravitational force or a local increase in the gravitational force.

(Expanding space with galactic stars held in place by a mechanism other than gravity) = (no expansion of space with compression of equilibrium galaxies by a mechanism other than gravity)

Hence, there are two mechanisms moving stars around in the universe. Or, we may say one mechanism with two components. Gravity pulls and the other pushes (compresses). The compression may be ascribed to the following cause.

The attraction of masses cannot be separated from its logical concomitant. (see LP #16)

If x is attracted toward z, it must also be stated equivalently that x is repelled by y (empty space).

Repulsion is greatest near the edge of a galaxy where no intervening bodies mask the effect of the void.
At y (center of void) there is no repulsion of a test mass for symmetry reasons.
At z the repulsion is cancelled by another void on the opposite side. If there is less void on the opposite side, the entire galaxy will move.

As voids expand the strength of the force resembles the following graph.

Gravitational attraction and void compression when combined yield the observed distribution of orbital velocities. (By angular momentum conservation, compression results in increased orbital velocities.)

Void compression holds galactic clusters together, creates bubbles and walls and is a cause of the expansion of the universe as well as the solution to the flatness problem.

In this manner:

The expansion is driven by gravity. If gravity stopped, expansion would also stop. But if expansion stops there is nothing to prevent matter from gravitating together and renewed gravitation results in renewed expansion (compression as the gravitational concomitant).

Clearly then, Q (the ratio between the amount of matter needed to halt the expansion and that which is actually present) must be about equal to 1 always and automatically.

(See Misc.16)

Horizon problem---see Misc.16a

Galactic 'breaking energy'---see Misc.16b

I have found a similar theory to this one at
http://www.jp-petit.com/science/f200/a204.htm"
His theory hypothesizes an unseen form of matter which attracts others of its own kind yet repels normal matter. The effect is, I believe, identical to the theory presented here. Check it out (and his page before this one.)

Here is a link to some new data that may be relevant to this discussion.

Mysterious force holds back Nasa probe in deep space
Its describes a possible "new" force ... very weak ... which is slowing down Pioneer 10. This would be consistent with the above discussion.
Here is an excerpt:

Pioneer 10 was launched by Nasa on March 2 1972, and with Pioneer 11, its twin, revolutionised astronomy with detailed images of Jupiter and Saturn. In June 1983, Pioneer 10 passed Pluto, the most distant planet in our solar system.
Both probes are now travelling at 27,000mph towards stars that they will encounter several million years from now. Scientists are continuing to monitor signals from Pioneer 10, which is more than seven billion miles from Earth.
Research to be published shortly in The Physical Review, a leading physics journal, will show that the speed of the two probes is being changed by about 6 mph per century - a barely-perceptible effect about 10 billion times weaker than gravity.

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