Missing Mass & Flatness Problem
Clearly, if space is expanding then the space between stars and the space between protons and electrons expands also. But if all these spaces expand no expansion could be observed, vis. if the electron does not fall down an 'expansion gradient' then atoms will expand with space making observation of expansion impossible to 'atomic observers' (man). If electrons do drop through the gradient but stars (within galaxies) do not, the galaxy would appear to expand in proportion with the universe which is not the apparent case. The following reasoning must apply.
Assume a Newtonian, gravitational equilibrium state wherein no expansion of space occurs.
To make the expansion 'observable', stars in galaxies must be held against the expansion while galaxies themselves move apart. It is important to note here that they cannot be held against the expansion by gravity because the total extent of the force of gravity is accounted for in holding the stars in the equilibrium configuration.
This holding is logically equivalent to the compression of a galaxy by an excess, non-gravitational force or a local increase in the gravitational force.
(Expanding space with galactic stars held in place by a mechanism other than gravity) = (no expansion of space with compression of equilibrium galaxies by a mechanism other than gravity)
Hence, there are two mechanisms moving stars around in the universe. Or, we may say one mechanism with two components. Gravity pulls and the other pushes (compresses). The compression may be ascribed to the following cause.
The attraction of masses cannot be separated from its logical concomitant. (see LP #16)
If x is attracted toward z, it must also be stated equivalently that x is repelled by y (empty space).
Repulsion is greatest near the edge of a galaxy where no intervening bodies mask the effect of the void.
As voids expand the strength of the force resembles the following graph.
Gravitational attraction and void compression when combined yield the observed distribution of orbital velocities. (By angular momentum conservation, compression results in increased orbital velocities.)
Void compression holds galactic clusters together, creates bubbles and walls and is a cause of the expansion of the universe as well as the solution to the flatness problem.
In this manner:
The expansion is driven by gravity. If gravity stopped, expansion would also stop. But if expansion stops there is nothing to prevent matter from gravitating together and renewed gravitation results in renewed expansion (compression as the gravitational concomitant).
Clearly then, Q (the ratio between the amount of matter needed to halt the expansion and that which is actually present) must be about equal to 1 always and automatically.
Horizon problem---see Misc.16a
Galactic 'breaking energy'---see Misc.16b
I have found a similar theory to this one at