Electromagnetic Interaction

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here can be no net change in a closed system for such a change necessarily alters the identity of the system.
Thus, a localized expansion of the isotropic grid must be accompanied by a localized contraction of that same grid. 'Charge' is then defined as such an expansion or contraction, just as mass decreases or increases with the expansion or contraction of the positional field.

Attraction of positive and negative charges is analogous to the distortion and subsequent return to default states in an accelerated positional field which obtains uniform motion, i.e. the rearward expansion ot the field is 'attracted' to the forward compression.

The acceleration of a charged particle is accomplished by the push or pull on the charge by another which bends the isotropic grid in the direction of motion. The reaction velocity then follows this asymmetry while the positional field is left behind due to finite transmission velocity. When the distortion of the positional field exactly cancels the distortion of the local isotropic grid (electric field), the obsevable rate of acceleration is achieved.

But a state of constant acceleration is impossible for an extended body.
Given two points on a body in the line of motion, the front point will always be moving at a greater or lesser velocity than the rear point depending on whether the source of the acceleration is a push or a pull because a notice of acceleration cannot be transmitted through the body at infinite velocity.

In the case or a charged particle the accelerated positional field becomes more and more distorted in the presence of constant acceleration. It therefore prohibits constant acceleration.
But the attraction of charges demands it.

Therefore there is an oscillation between both resulting in photon emission.

Beginning at rest (A), the particle is centered in both the positional (blue) and isotropic charge field (yellow). Another charge appears and pulls the 'object' charge , distorting it (B). The object i-field has a maximum distortion given the 'force' bearing on it from the 'attracting' charge. When this limit is reached the distortion stops.
Note: The particle interacts with the isotropic field and with the positional field but the two fields do not interact directly because the p-field is logically posterior to the i-field. Whereas the i-field and the particle are logically congruent. Therefore, the i-field influences the particle which in turn drags its p-field along. Recall that the p-field advances outward in time encompassing other particles because it embodies the counting process which is the 'anterior-posterior' aspect of logic.

(C) The particle accelerates by interacting with its i-field but the front of the i-field in not notified of that motion instantaneously. Therefore, the stress on the i-field is relieved until such time as the front receives notice to that effect and resumes being pulled to the source charge. Now the particle self-interacts with the distorted p-field and slows down allowing the p-field to catch up. It then must wait for notice of the renewed i-field distortion in order to follow that distortion.
As the particle's p-field is distorted a photon 'pulse' is reflected off the front compression and ejected out the rear decompression. The pulse consists of all the information contained in the particle about its identity and state of motion.
Then the process is started over again (D).
(This is reminiscent or a clock escapement in that it changes a continuous process into a discontinuous one.)
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The distortion of an accelerated positional field is ellipsoidal and possesses two foci.
Since each focus is no more nor less real than the other, two particles may be formed. And because the scale of the positional field is a complimentary of the isotropic grid (via unit indeterminacy; see Planck Constant) there will be a corresponding increase or decrease in the isotropic field density (charge).
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### Strength of the Electromagnetic Interaction

On a global scale, the following thought experiment may reveal the reason for the great strength of the electric potential.

If all protons were removed from the universe what would occur?
Clearly, local concentrations of electrons would immediately disperse by mutual repulsion. But they can only go to a state of maximum entropy wherein space is homogeneously filled with electrons. In this state there is no longer a force pushing them away from one another because there is no means, in principle, of measuring it, i.e. of logically validating its existence.
Recall that a "thing is what it appears to other things to be". A force is logically congruent with that which is being acted upon by it. Therefore, the force in a state of uniform distribution must be zero and the previously repulsive electrons now take on the appearance of neutrons.

The electric potential then must be, in the initial state of the universe, just 0. And the gravitational interaction strength must be 1, extrapolating back from its present. value (~10^-39).

We may justifiably conjecture then that as the gravitational interaction diminishes the electromagnetic increases and that they are functions of one another.

Thus, gravity pulls electrons together and as they 'clump' their potential increases at the expense of the gravitational potential. This is only possible because the proton (+) acts as an 'enabler' for gravity by cancelling the electron (-) charge thereby allowing the electric potential to increase much more than it would if allowed only to go to a degree of 'clumpiness' wherein both potentials were equalized.

### The Magnetic Field

There are two types of magnetic fields to be examined:
Those resulting from relativistic considerations
Those resulting from 'unit rotation' of a particle in response to the appearance of 'new' particles.

Relativistic magnetic fields arise from the lateral (with respect to the viewer) displacement of charges. Such displacements give the appearance of 'contraction' (see Relativity) relative to the observer.

Differential displacement of (+) and (-) charges creates an apparent contraction of the higher velocity charge stream. Angles A, (in the above illustration) show the appearance of charges in a current carrying wire to a test charge moving relative to it. Light arrow is direction of motion and dark arrow is direction of resultant force on the test charge.

An intrinsic angular momentum results from rotation at right angles to the reaction velocity.
In response to the appearance of a new particle a central unit may rotate. Such rotation functions as a clock (an absolute timepiece) which is the qualitive analog of unit space. Without a standard of absolute time deterministic actions cannot occur.
Such rotation is indirectly observable as the magnetic field of the neutron via unit indeterminacy (a complimentary twist in the isotropic grid of the opposite hand in the vicinity of the neutron). See Planck's Constant

Net unit rotations cancel for stationary particles. 'Observable' rotation increases in the direction motion in the manner of relativistic mass increase.
.............. 1 / {(1+u)(1-u)(1)}^1/2 = 1 / (1-u^2)^1/2.................

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