for this photon model
In the case of the standard photon, a transverse wave model as well as a partical model is employed. However, the wave model does not adequately explain the localization of the photon's energy in a particular place after it has traversed an interstellar distance. That is, as the wave spreads out generally in a plane, the amplitude of the wave decreases as 1/r and after, say, 10 light years travel that nil amplitude knocks an electron out of orbit in a particular atom here on earth. One must suppose that all of that circular wave form is in contact with all other parts (in this case over a diameter of 20 light years) and that that form somehow decides by unknown statistical methods to knock a certain electron out of orbit ... and ... the entire wave form "knows" to "collapse" upon that particular electron ... and ... discontinue any further progress outward from its original source.
My objection here is that it is all well and good to use a straightforward mathematical approach (sum over histories) ... but ... Why does nature bother to show us a tranverse wave aspect in experiments? ... a geometrical-mechanical aspect.
I do not believe that nature abandons mechanical display at the photon level. Perhaps I am wrong, but ... if not, there is only one option conceivable to me (that given in the preceeding sections).
Therefore, my model incorporates both particle and wave aspects by allowing the the transverse wave aspect to carry information but no ability to raise an electron out of any orbit, i.e. information is transmitted without any particles being raised or lowered in a potential. The amplitude weakens as 1/r.
It has occurred to me recently that the emission of photons into the isotropic field increases the tension of the field in excess of "unit tension". Recall that this field which carries electromagnetic energy must be flexible and therefore must have some sort of initial tension (unit tension) to cause it to snap back to its original shape.The other aspect of the model is the waveform corresponding to a drop of water ejected from a pond after a stone has been thrown into it. The transverse wave spreads out in a plane while the drop of water is ejected perpendicular to the transverse form and is linearly localized. Since it does not deteriorate over time (hypothetically), it functions as the particle-photon aspect of the standard model. A large number of such energy carrying photons (capable of knocking electrons out of orbit) will spread out from a source as 1/r2 .