The Electromagnetic and Gravitational
History of the Universe

 E
nough information has been given to proffer a nominal history of the universe consistent with the theory at hand. This is my best guess at the overall workings of the long range forces as they are conducted now and as they have been since the inception of the universe.

At the beginning we have an infinite Euclidean manifold of particles spread throughout with a high degree of uniformity (but not perfection).

The strength of the gravitational force is "one", i.e. unit force.
The strength of the electromagnetic force is also unit force "one".
And the nuclear and weak force in like manner have a force of "one".
The mass of the unit particle is "one" unit of mass.
The fine structure constant is "one"
And the electron-proton mass ratio is also "one".
The measure of Planck's Constant is ... "one".
The speed of light is "one".
Force between e & P in hydrogen ground state is "one"

No number is "picked out of a hat" at random.

The present numbers are now measured as follows .

(in the unit scale)
Gravitational Interaction = 10-39
Electromagnetic Interaction = 1/137
Nuclear Force = 1?, 10? (something in there)
Weak Force = ~1/137 to 10-15
Mass of Baryon = 10-13 um
FSC = 1/137
e/P = 1/1836
h = 10-26
c = 1/137 ( ? presently conjectured -by me- 02-26-00 )
Force between e & P in hydrogen ground state = 10-13

What's going on here?

Particles (matter) "clump up" by way of gravity both from the curvature of local space caused by their own positional fields and concomitantly by the relieved tension in the isotropic field which is measured by the fine structure constant. The gravitational force has declined precipitously and the mass of a baryon has declined as well.

Q ... Since the tension in the isotropic field can be taken as energy we might inquire as to the disposition of that energy. Where did it go?
A ... I had previously guessed that the electromagnetic interaction was initially "0" and increased as the universe developed. I am now disposed to think that it is initially one just like everything else and declines. If that decline is measured by the FSC, then the missing amount has "flown off" in all directions. I mean that the apparent energy of departing galaxies (the Hubble flow) is the depository for that which is missing. This is one of two sensible places and it fits my conception of a gravitational concomitant which is in this theory the "cause" of the expanding universe.

The other place is in the excessive velocity of stars in galaxies and galaxies within clusters which is inconsistent with the virial theorem (as formulated without regard to a gravitational concomitant ... the culprit is "dark matter"!! ).

Q ... Where has the mass of all those baryons departed too?
A ... It can be in no other place that the creation of the electric potential. When a neutron decays into a positive and negative charge, it is the isotropic field which carries that charge in the form of a compressed and an expanded zone in that field. This symmetric expansion and contraction causes no change in the overall "tension" of the isotropic field because the two alterations are offsetting. But the attraction they "feel" toward one another is determined by the FSC which is what in turn determines how fast the electromagnetic interaction proceeds vis a vis the "flexing" of isotropic field lines ... together with the mass of the involved particles which provide the resistance (inertia) against which that "flexing" is measured. Hence, the force between an electron and proton in the hydrogen ground state is given by (FSC)3 x (e/P)2 = 10-13

How is this accomplished? Gravity pulls the negative charges together creating the potential. Imagine what would happen if all positive charges suddenly disappeared. All the electrons would fly off and fill space uniformly ... but ... they would then lose any repulsion for one another when that uniformity was achieved ... there being nothing to measure it against. Hence, pulling them together creates the eletromagnetic force. Yet, if there were an electron-proton pair at the outset, their repulsive force would measure as "one" because they are not the original occupants of the universe ... the neutrons are. Therefore, an initial, isolated, positive and negative charge may attract one another with a force of one unit.

As matter clumps up, the electric potential is maintained for an entire universe of charged particles.

Summing up
If all present matter were evenly distributed throughout the universe, the electric potential would (in my view) decrease to near zero even though the FSC would return to "one".

Q ... Where has the breaking energy gone which is attendant with the clumping of matter into galactic clusters?
A ... It is clear from observation that galaxies are in stable configurations. There are great void spaces along with the large scale matter structures. For galaxies to stick around in the vicinity of one another, something in addition to gravity is necessary. Gravity will get them there ... but ... they will fly apart again unless something intervenes to "damp" the oscillation.

It is not "heat" liberated from running into one another. The photonic evidence is not there and the odds against actual collisions between massive bodies is overwhelming. Something has "taken the heat" and left them near one another at reasonable velocities (speeds which will allow them to be trapped together in stable structures).

The only dumps I can think of are the above. The breaking energy is stored in the maintenance of the electromagnetic interaction. Or, in the apparent expansion of the universe ... the velocities of receeding galaxies or their distances as gravitational potentials.

Q ... What are the consequences of slowing down light from 1 to 1/ 137 ?
A ... If light velocity were significantly greater than it is today matter might sort itself into structures without problems of insufficient time. Present theory indicates that for such large scale structures to form, greater amounts of time are required than offered by the standard model. [A clear inconsistency]

An afterthought

Such questions as these must be adequately answered if we are to get from "all those ones" to variations which established theories take as "the given". I realize that getting all these parameters to coexist rationally as an integrated structure is much like trying to juggle 12 balls at once ... incredibly difficult but necessary nonetheless and ... in the final analysis ... eminently do-able.

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