The space/matter ratio determines the force of compression that might be observed.
Within a galaxy the average distance between stars is ~10 light years. Therefore, there are about 10^3 cubic light years per star. But the distance to the next galaxy is on the order of 1,000,000 light years giving ~10^18 cubic light years or about 10^7 cubic light years per star if we consider ~10^11 stars/galaxy. This yields a force on a star (directed toward the center of the galaxy) as much as 10,000 times greater than the force of compression on an individual star arrising from the space arround it (10^7 / 10^3).
The Horizon Problem is resolved by the initial distribution of unit particles (unit expectation).
Initial radiation is in the 1 UL range (again---unit expectation). The microwave background was then emitted when the universe was on the order of .001 seconds old and represents the fall of an electron through ~1 meter, i.e. from 1 UL (which is about one meter) to ~1 millimeter when the 'size' and distribution of particles allowed photons to pass in large numbers without reabsorbtion.
Large scale structures are formed by the initially large 'constant' G which began with unit force and has diminished to ~10^-39. Matter was accelerated to high velocity by gravitation and its concomitant.
The breaking energy must be stored in any or all of the following:
1) The electric potential. [Linear momentum stored in the electric potential just as angular momentum can be stored in the magnetic potential]
2) Kinetic energy of red shifted galaxies. [From the perspective of an expanding space]
3) Increased proper linear and angular momentum of galaxies
4) Increased baryon mass [ in excess of 1 / (2 pi R)^1/2 ]
To establish correspondence with standard scales it
is necessary to know only the number R (radius of universe in UL) and the
ratio Meters per UL.
On the unit scale (from theory) the following relationships should be numerically true.
bar h=1/(2 pi R)
e=(a/2 pi R)^1/2
h^1/2= (a^3)(B^2)..... empirical assumption
Compton wavelength of neutron = unit mass of neutron = 1/(2pi R)^1/2
1/Compton wavelength of electron = um[e] = B / (2pi R)^1/2
G = Cwvlngth[n] / R = Cwvlngth[n] times h-bar =1 / (2pi R^3)^1/2
1.0 M < 1 UL < 2.5 M [From current age constraints]
Examination of the foregoing in the light of known
relationships such as:
t/(e^2/m[e]c^3) ~ 4.5 E40 and e^2/(Gm[n]m[e]) = 2.27 E39
gives error coefficients of +/- 1 to 5 with the exception of the neutron mass and its Compton wavelength which is 20 to 80 times greater [m] and smaller [C] than calculated.
This may be ascribable to
falling gravitational potential. (If all matter
were in one object, unit mass would be restored.)
Addendum 03-16-2000: If light speed has decreased to 1/137 of its original unit velocity ... then ... this may have something to do with this particular discrepancy.