Miscellaneous Observations
and Calculations

#### M16 go back to: Dark Matter...

 G
changes with time relative to the electromagnetic interaction (an observable).
Radar ranging of Mars contradicts any change in the constant G ; but the compression also works on the solar system scale as a compensating factor (causing speed up of orbital velocity by the same mechanism of angular momentum conservation).
Compression may also be a factor in the solar neutrino deficit because the number of baryons in the sun is slightly overestimated.

The space/matter ratio determines the force of compression that might be observed.
Within a galaxy the average distance between stars is ~10 light years. Therefore, there are about 10^3 cubic light years per star. But the distance to the next galaxy is on the order of 1,000,000 light years giving ~10^18 cubic light years or about 10^7 cubic light years per star if we consider ~10^11 stars/galaxy. This yields a force on a star (directed toward the center of the galaxy) as much as 10,000 times greater than the force of compression on an individual star arrising from the space arround it (10^7 / 10^3).

#### M16a go back to: Dark Matter...

The Horizon Problem is resolved by the initial distribution of unit particles (unit expectation).
Initial radiation is in the 1 UL range (again---unit expectation). The microwave background was then emitted when the universe was on the order of .001 seconds old and represents the fall of an electron through ~1 meter, i.e. from 1 UL (which is about one meter) to ~1 millimeter when the 'size' and distribution of particles allowed photons to pass in large numbers without reabsorbtion.

#### M16b go back to: Dark Matter...

Large scale structures are formed by the initially large 'constant' G which began with unit force and has diminished to ~10^-39. Matter was accelerated to high velocity by gravitation and its concomitant.

The breaking energy must be stored in any or all of the following:

1) The electric potential. [Linear momentum stored in the electric potential just as angular momentum can be stored in the magnetic potential]
2) Kinetic energy of red shifted galaxies. [From the perspective of an expanding space]
3) Increased proper linear and angular momentum of galaxies
4) Increased baryon mass [ in excess of 1 / (2 pi R)^1/2 ]

#### M-general calculations

On the unit scale there are no arbitrary pure numbers. There are mathematicals (-l.O,+l.e,a.etc.) and 'R functions'.

To establish correspondence with standard scales it is necessary to know only the number R (radius of universe in UL) and the ratio Meters per UL.
On the unit scale (from theory) the following relationships should be numerically true.
c=1
h=1/R
bar h=1/(2 pi R)
e=(a/2 pi R)^1/2
h^1/2= (a^3)(B^2)..... empirical assumption
Compton wavelength of neutron = unit mass of neutron = 1/(2pi R)^1/2
1/Compton wavelength of electron = um[e] = B / (2pi R)^1/2
G = Cwvlngth[n] / R = Cwvlngth[n] times h-bar =1 / (2pi R^3)^1/2

1.0 M < 1 UL < 2.5 M [From current age constraints]

Examination of the foregoing in the light of known relationships such as:
t/(e^2/m[e]c^3) ~ 4.5 E40 and e^2/(Gm[n]m[e]) = 2.27 E39
gives error coefficients of +/- 1 to 5 with the exception of the neutron mass and its Compton wavelength which is 20 to 80 times greater [m] and smaller [C] than calculated.

This may be ascribable to falling gravitational potential. (If all matter were in one object, unit mass would be restored.)
Addendum 03-16-2000: If light speed has decreased to 1/137 of its original unit velocity ... then ... this may have something to do with this particular discrepancy.

#### M-entropy

Entropic predictions are valid for hypothetical closed systems and do not apply to the entire observable universe which adds 4pi R^2 unit masses per unit time.
Potentials are created as they fall. The energy source for their creation is the decreasing mass of the initial unit particle (1/(2pi R)^1/2.

#### M-inertia

Inertia is the rate of acceleration ratio between the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions.
Mass gives no 'resistance' to acceleration. Rather it simply proceeds at an unspecified finite rate (unit acceleration). A 'difference' in rates is the only observable.
The 'pressure of resistance' felt in an electromagnetic acceleration would disappear if every atom were accelerated individually as in a freely falling body.

#### M-absolute angular reference

The 'absolute' reference frame (initial isotropic grid) cannot be detected in linear motion except by reference to the contextual 'background radiation'.
Absolute angular momentum is detected by the water bucket method which is unambiguously valid, i.e. one cannot state that the universe is rotating and not the bucket because an opposed rotating bucket on the same axis reveals the identical centrifugal evidence (depression in water surface).

Back to 19a

#### M-'Back calculated' equations

Equations which the knowledgeable reader would regard as "simple" must number in the tens of millions. A simple equation is here arbitrarily defined as one which uses exponents and constants such as pi, e, i, 1, -1 , 2, 3, 1/2, 1/3 as well as the familiar measured physical constants (g, h, a, e/P mass ratio, etc.) and has not more than, say, six terms including a variable.
With such a set up one can 'back calculate' an equation to generate any specific number to about seven significant figures. One simply assembles the above objects in various ways until one zeroes in on the desired number.
This doesn't even take very long. A few minutes and one obtains a simple equation which yields the 'correct' answer.
[ This is the reason theories or mathematics which "stand alone" are not to be trusted. There are far too many of them. Without basic, observable, obvious, ideas acting as a foundation no demonstrably true understanding proceeds.]