The Long Term
Fate of the Universe

ill the model of the universe I have proposed die, i.e. a "heat death"? Or, will it somehow go on forever ... always changing ... developing ... with man in it (or some reasonable facsimile)?

Or ... perhaps, both !?

From that which has been developed in previous sections, the universe must necessarily come to an end ... at least for man. As gravity weakens, the distances over which "new" matter must travel to fall down our G-gradient is so vast as to prohibit its use as a long term fuel.

When the supply of hydrogen has been converted into helium and helium into progressively higher elements there will be no further place to obtain energy. There is, however, another posibility to prolong our stay. If progressively higher elements (now radioactive) become stable, we may have continuous supplies of energy ... at least until everything has "black holed" itself into uselessness as fuel.

New Black Hole Universe

Because the universe as I describe it has no boundary other than its present extent (which continues to enlarge as we are able to see and interact with more "new" matter), we must expect that there will exist, after trillions of years, a system of roughtly equal in size ... black holes... where all matter in its vicinity has fallen in.

However, this is almost the same state that we started with ... an ever increasing set of uniformly distributed particles equal in all respects. Only one part is lacking which will make these "holes" precisely equal to neutrons (albeit on a vast scale).


These are ejected from the decay of the neutron during the formation of a proton and electron.

To restore exactly the neutron state the "holes" must vacuum up all the surrounding neutrinos to put the hole in the proper spin state. And this is just what will happen. So that in the "end" we come back to the beginning. And start the w-hole process over on an unimaginably larger scale.

The rules of quantum mechanics must then scale up as well so that, to an observer in the next universe, all is the same (qualitively) as we see it. Although a "hole's" position and mass are very well determined on our scale ... on the next scale they are not ... because these observers will be using very much longer wavelengths to see with. In fact, they will not be able to generate (or even detect) wavelengths as short as what we are accustomed to just as we cannot generate wavelengths at the Planck scale.

The speed of light is still the same and compared to the distances over which it acts, this "new universe" will be unimaginably slower ... but this won't matter to those beings who inhabit the new universe.

It's just a matter of scale

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