The Origin of Charge
How and why it exists

n the previous page I indicated that charge may originate due to the release of alpha.gif - 2kb field tension. Since the potential energy represented by that tension cannot disappear altogether (1st Law), it must reappear in some other guise.

At its origin ...

The universe is dominated by gravity (initially possessing "unit" force). The electromagnetic force does not exist and therefore has value "0".

As matter is brought together by gravity, the electromgnetic force rises (charge comes into being - how?) as electrons and protons are brought together in the manner of compressing a spring. This can only be accomplished because the positive and negative charges cancel each other. Nevertheless, both springs are compressed and approach the "unit" strength which currently holds them together.

We have two aspects to consider:
1) The gravitational force which is primarily responsible for the strength of the electromagnetic force. As the gravitational force weakens ... the electromagnetic strengthens. See ntx17
2) The gravitational concomitant (Dark Energy) pushes matter together rather than pulls. It's initial force is something greater than one (probably 2 or "e" maybe) and diminishes when the tension in the alpha.gif - 2kb field decreases as matter is clumped together (from the previous page).

There is a mathematical correspondence between the alpha.gif - 2kb and beta.gif - 2kb fields.

It is embodied in the strength of bonding in the hydrogen ground state given as alpha.gif - 2kb3beta.gif - 2kb2 = ~1.15 x 10-13 (on the "unit" scale, see - ntx19).

Here, the electron gives up the Rydberg energy in falling to the ground state ... and ... the relativistic energy added to the electron by its orbital velocity (1/137 c) is exactly equal to this as well.

beta.gif - 2kb, on the "unit" or "absolute" scale is the mass of the electron. So the velocity (FSC x c) that an electron requires to maintain its "orbit" around the proton in the hydrogen ground state is equal to cube root of one piece of the force equation for that ground state ... while its mass is the square root of the other piece. The electromagnetic force is then here "tested" against the gravitational force (represented by the electron's mass) in a most fundamental way.

This is where the two forces are "universally" calibrated.

No numbers, which are causelessly generated, can be applied to the universe for the purposes of such calibration. Taking any number and applying it to the entire universe in a causeless way, forces out an infinite spectrum of possible universes which has already been rejected by the theory presented here.

Splitting the neutral charge

A charge is a localized compression or expansion of the alpha.gif - 2kb-field. They must come in "cancelling" pairs so that the identity of the unit alpha.gif - 2kb-field is preserved, i.e. its overall density remains unchanged.

The initial "excess" tension of the alpha.gif - 2kb-field must disappear as matter "clumps by means of gravity". The energy represented by that tension must go somewhere. The appearance of charge provides the necessary "dumping" ground.

The split occurs when neutral particles (the initial beta.gif - 2kb-fields) are accelerated causing a compression-expansion of that field as given in ntx17 (complimentary alpha.gif - 2kb-field compression-expansion generated by reaction to the beta.gif - 2kb-field acceleration) and broken apart by the weak interaction as in ntx20.

Gravity diminishes in strength providing the electromagnetic interaction with that force. The initial excess tension energy in the alpha.gif - 2kb-field supplies the electron with its orbital velocity around the proton.

Likely: The galactic breaking energy is stored here as well.

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