Pioneer 10
The Anomalous Deceleration

he small but difficult to explain deceleration of Pioneer 10 as it heads out of the solar system caused me to think of a new analogous explanation of the foregoing which is probably better than the dollar bill analogy.

I'm going to call the Isotropic grid the alpha alpha.gif - 2kb field instead of the I-field since it is associated with the electromagnetic interaction and fine structure constant ... and the P-field (positional), the beta beta.gif - 2kb field since beta is associated with mass as in the the electron-proton mass ratio.

Let us then construct the alpha.gif - 2kb field with "0" tension. pioneer1.gif - 2kb Imagine strings as field lines and place them in straight lines tying them to pegs at the ends. But ... we will not make them tight, just in the relaxed but straight state. It then has "0" tension. Now, if we pluck the string, we add energy to it and give it tension (since we've stretched it). It can now carry a wave form ... just barely. If we now stretch the pegs out and give the grid some tension ... then pluck it ... the wave will travel indefinitely with a well defined velocity. pioneer2.gif - 3kb Stretching it further will increase its tension and increase the velocity of any wave form. Thus, sound travels faster in steel than in water. Get it? When we add energy to the strings in the form of tension, it transmits at higher velocity. So, given the first state of "0" tension and zero transmission velocity, how do we derive model of the real alpha.gif - 2kb field?

We add mass ...

In the form of beta.gif - 2kb fields.

Recall that the alpha.gif - 2kb field is simply a 3-dimensional Euclidean manifold while the beta.gif - 2kb field is just a 3-dimensional Polar coordinate system.

When we plunk down a large number of these beta.gif - 2kb fields into the alpha.gif - 2kb field, by their mutual interaction, the alpha.gif - 2kb field gets stretched. It is therefore under tension. I give the initial tension "1", i.e. unit tension (with a random distribution of beta.gif - 2kb fields in it, that is, uniformly spread out more of less). This is equivalent to pulling the strings tighter.

Now, by the process given previously for gravitation, these beta.gif - 2kb fields attract one another. But common gravitation is not the subject here. We wish to give a mechanism for another attractive force, related to gravitation, which will cause the beta.gif - 2kb fields to "clump up" (aka, the gravitational concomittent)

Cheerios to the rescue ...

pioneer3.gif - 3kb Well, to do this experiment you will need a bowl, a spoon, some milk and some Cheerios (preferably Honey Nut Cheerios since you will be eating your experiment). Now, as the Cheerios disappear you will note that ... They tend to clump up ... and tend to stick to the sides of the bowl as they float in the soon to be consumed milk. Is this not so?

And the reason is that the milk tends to "wet" the Cheerios by climbing up the sides via Van DerWaals forces (capillary action) ... against the surface tension of the milk. So why do they clump?

pioneer4.gif - 6kb

They clump because when spread out, the milk has a larger surface area from all the bumps in it from wetting the O's. Hence, it's surface tension is greater. The measure of the extra energy contained in the surface tension when the Cheerios are spread out is the degree to which the milk is picked up higher than the general level of the milk. That is, the center of mass of the milk + Cheerios is ever so slightly higher when the Cheerios are spread out ... and lower when they clump (like you are when you stand on your tiptoes).

Like a soap bubble which assumes the shape of a sphere to have the least surface area, the milk configures the Cheerios so as to put it in the least surface tension state. In the case of a soap bubble, if you were to blow up the bubble to a larger volume (and greater surface area), the surface tension would increase until the bubble popped. Same thing with a balloon ... the more you blow it up, the greater is the tension on the surface of the balloon because that surface has increased in area.

Cheerios are Beta ... Milk is Alpha

The tension in the alpha.gif - 2kb field is greatest when the beta.gif - 2kb fields (matter) are spread out uniformly ... and least ... when matter is in clumps. Hence, there is a non-classical gravitational force at play which pushes matter together and is as yet undefined and unquantified.

This is the force which is mistaken for Dark Matter, Missing Mass, etc. ... and ... it is pushing Pioneer 10 in the direction of the Sun ... ever so slightly. On the cosmological scale, it gives galaxies in large clusters faster velocities than conventional gravity can hold together (by speeding them up adiabatically through compression of the cluster). It causes the stars at the outskirts of spiral galaxies to move faster than they should (via angular momentum conservation).

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